Sixth Generation of Computers

Technology advancements are often quantified and identified by the terminology “generation.” Each year, the product development process improves, this is deemed a generation. With each new generation of computer, the motherboard and silicon footprint decreases and the speed, power and memory power increases.

Progression of Computers

Computers have come a long way since the first generation vacuum tubes for circuitry and memory magnetic drums. The first generation computer utilized assembly language programming or high level programming languages to execute instructions for the user. These early computers required a lot of electricity to operate and also generated a lot of heat that was difficult to displace.

The second generation replaced the vacuum tubes with transistors, which were a primary component of microprocessors today. Transistors were invented in 1947 in Bell Laboratories. These devices were preferable to vacuum tubes that emitted a significant amount of heat and slowed processing times.

Transistors opened the door to faster processing. The latest microprocessors contain tens of millions of microscopic transistors. Without the transistor, we would not have the same level of computing power that we have today.

The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube. This allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.

The third generation computer involved integrated circuits. These circuits are often referred to as semiconductors, because of the substrate used to design the circuit. Semiconductors dramatically increased the speed and efficiency of the computer. Semiconductors also decreased the overall footprint of the computer. As the semiconductor packages become smaller, designers produced smaller laptops and desktop computers. Minimalist designers and chiropractors rejoiced with the weight and size reduction.

The fourth generation marked the production of computers as we know them today. Microprocessors were introduced in this generation of computers. The computer processing speeds increased exponentially, as the “brain” of the computer mastered complex computations. This generation of computer allowed manufacturers to lower the price to make computers available to the common household. Computers, however, were still not as cost effective as they are today.

The fifth generation of computer added artificial intelligence to the computer to improve the speed and efficiency of advanced computations and graphic displays. Game playing, expert systems, natural language, neural networks and robotics were all capabilities of the fifth generation computer.

Neural networks were particularly important in this generation of computer. The computer could mimic actual neuron synapses in the human body. These complex mathematical models were handled with ease through the fifth generation computer. However, scientists still needed more computing power to accomplish advanced robotics and other language computations.

The Sixth Generation of Computer

Not only does the technology improve, but the price decreases as the technology improves. The sixth generation of computer provided consumers with the opportunity to have more power on a smaller footprint. The sixth generation also introduced voice recognition. Improved technology allows the computer to take dictation and recognize words. Computers have the ability to learn via a variety of advanced algorithms.

The use of nanotechnology is a characteristic of sixth generation computers. This significantly increases the processing time of the computer and help consumers. Computers with multiple CPUs can perform sophisticated calculations and multitask. When a single CPU can perform multiple tasks at once, this is considered multi-tasking.

When qubits or quantum bits process calculations, it is typically faster than conventional computers. This technology works in conjunction with the computer’s processor and memory. Complex languages such as English, Chinese, French and Spanish are easily processed with the use of qubits or quantum bits. Computers can now understand and interpret numerous languages with the new advanced technology available.

This new advancement will allow students and the disabled to speak commands into the computer without touching the physical device. Voice recognition is also helpful in laboratory clean rooms, surgical operating rooms or even use in customer service. Voice recognition will significantly enhance the scientist’s ability to create new technology.

Voice controlled games and typing applications are easy with sixth generation applications. Avid gamers will view video games in incredible detail with life-like motion. Parallel processing enables faster speeds for video games. As the semiconductor footprint becomes smaller through the use of nanotechnology, the user has more flexibility in the use of the computer.

Conclusion

Sixth generation took advanced computing to a new level with voice recognition. Consumers can only imagine what the seventh generation of computer will bring. Consumers will look forward to these new advancements as they develop.

TechiWarehouse.Com is a very simple yet informative site to say the least. The whole point of this website is to let programmers, network technicians, database designers, computer beginners, etc… of all kinds to come here, quickly look for what they want, and get the heck out. The purpose of the internet is to provide and share information, quickly and efficiently. So why keep the general population of the web away? Whether the visitor is a code, web, script, or designer programmer; network admin, user, part of a workgroup; and so on there is something here for all. Since people should stick to what they do best, we have sworn not to let down the IT/Web community.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Ali_Gheli/470503

 

Fifth Generation of Computers

Earlier Generations of Computing

The first generation of computing is generally thought of as the “vacuum tube era.” These computers used large vacuum tubes as their circuits, and large metal drums as their memory. They generated a tremendous amount of heat and, as any computer professional can tell attest, this led to a large number of failures and crashes in the early years of computing. This first generation of computer lasted for sixteen years, between 1940 and 1956, and was characterized by massive computers that could fill an entire room. The most notable of these large, and yet quite basic, computers, were the UNIVAC and ENIAC models.

Second-generation computing was characterized by a switch from vacuum tubes to transistors, and saw a significant decrease in the size of computing devices. Invented in 1947, the transistor came to computers in 1956. Its popularity and utility in computing machines lasted until 1963, when integrated circuits supplanted them. However, transistors remain an important part of modern computing. Even modern-day Intel chips contain tens of millions of transistors – although microscopic in size, and not nearly as power-draining as their much earlier predecessors.

Between 1964 and 1971, computing began to take baby steps toward the modern era. During this third generation of computing, the semiconductor increased the speed and efficiency of computers by leaps and bounds, while simultaneously shrinking them even further in size. These semiconductors used miniaturized transistors which were much smaller than the traditional transistor found in earlier computers, and put them on a silicon chip. This is still the basis for modern processors, though on a much, much smaller scale.

In 1971, computing hit the big time: microprocessing. Microprocessors can be found in every single computing device today, from desktops and laptops to tablets and smartphones. They contain thousands of integrated circuits that are housed on a single chip. Their parts are microscopic, allowing one small processor to handle many simultaneous tasks at the same time with very little loss of processing speed or capacity.

Because of their extremely small size and large processing capacity, microprocessors enabled the home computing industry to flourish. IBM introduced the very first personal computer in 1981; three years later, Apple followed with its wildly successful Apple line of computers that revolutionized the industry and made the microprocessor industry a mainstay in the American economy.

Chip manufacturers like AMD and Intel sprouted up and flourished in Silicon Valley alongside established brands like IBM. Their mutual innovation and competitive spirit led to the most rapid advancement of computer processing speed and power in the history of computing; and enabled a marketplace that is today dominated by handheld devices which are infinitely more powerful than the room-sized computers of just a half-century ago.

Fifth Generation of Computing

Technology never stops evolving and improving, however. While the microprocessor has revolutionized the computing industry, the fifth generation of computer looks to turn the whole industry on its head once again. The fifth generation of computing is called “artificial intelligence,” and it is the goal of computer scientists and developers to eventually create computers than outsmart, outwit, and maybe even outlast their human inventors.

The fifth generation of computer has already beaten humans in a number of games – most notably a 1997 game of chess against the man who was then the game’s world champion. But where it can beat humans in very methodical gameplay, fifth generation computing lacks the ability to understand natural human speech and affectation. Artificial intelligence is not yet as intelligent as it needs to be in order to interact with its human counterparts and – more importantly – truly understand them.

But strides have been made. Many computers and smartphones on the market contain a rudimentary voice recognition feature that can translate human speech into text. However, they still require slow, very punctual dictation – otherwise words become jumbled or erroneous. And they’re still not receptive to human affectation which might indicate the needs for capital letters, question marks, or things such as bold and italicized type.

As microprocessors continue to increase their power by leaps and bounds, it will becoming possible for these hallmarks of artificial intelligence to become easier to develop and implement. It’s easy to underestimate the complexity of human language and patterns of communication, but the simple fact is that translating those things into raw computing power and ability requires a great deal of time and resources – in some cases, resources that have yet to be fully developed and put into a computer chip.

TechiWarehouse.Com is a very simple yet informative site to say the least. The whole point of this website is to let programmers, network technicians, database designers, computer beginners, etc… of all kinds to come here, quickly look for what they want, and get the heck out. The purpose of the internet is to provide and share information, quickly and efficiently. So why keep the general population of the web away? Whether the visitor is a code, web, script, or designer programmer; network admin, user, part of a workgroup; and so on there is something here for all. Since people should stick to what they do best, we have sworn not to let down the IT/Web community.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Ali_Gheli/470503

 

“Womb to Tomb Computing”: A Prediction Regarding the Future of Computing

Introduction

Computers are everywhere. We rely on computers for many things that we do every day of our lives. Many of the machines that we use have microprocessors that enable them to function properly. The smart phones that many people carry in their hands are more powerful than some of the earlier computers that were developed during the 20th Century.

The Use of Computers Spreading

More and more human beings are using computers every day at homes where they live and in offices where they work. Computers are even available in many hotels or the use of their guests. This makes it possible for people to use computers even when they travel, and even if they forget to carry their own laptop computers with them. Some of the larger restaurant and coffee shop chains have also started providing free connection to the Internet to lure more customers.

Computers Are At the Center of Everything in Society

Much of the modern world is software driven. I am sure somebody has said that “There is an app for everything and for everything there is an app.” If no one else has said that before, I will take credit for it.

In modern societies, computer chips and software are working silently behind the scenes to make sure that things are functioning smoothly. Modern society depends on computers depend on computers to such a great extent that it is hard to conceive of going back to a world without computers.

Computers Help Us in Every Walk of Life

Computers already help us from birth to death in many areas of life. Doctors use computers to help them diagnose patients and to prescribe medication. We use computers to learn in and outside of schools. Almost every job that we do requires the use of computers. WE even use computers to search and apply for jobs. How about socializing with others? Two words will more than answer that question: Facebook and Twitter.

Computers Are Becoming Smaller and Smaller

Some of the earlier electronic computers were really huge and compared to modern computers, quite limited in their capabilities. Desktop computer appear to be huge compared to tablet PCs. Computers are getting smaller and smaller. Eventually scientists will develop computers that are so small that they will be invisible to the naked human eye. In the not too distance future, it is conceivable that computers will be so small that many of them will be able to fit inside a human cell.

Womb to Tomb Computing

I boldly predict that by the year 2025 we will see the birth and growth of what can be called “womb to tomb computing.” People will be able to ingest nano-bio-computers or NBCs that will continuously monitor and collect data from various parts of the body that can be used by medical professionals to take corrective and curative action. Those humans who choose not to ingest NBCs can wear them on their bodies I the form of clothing or jewelry. The NBCs that can be replaced and upgraded periodically will continue to help human beings as they grow and mature, by providing information and computational capabilities that are appropriate for the needs of human beings at various stages of their lives. At the time of death of an individual, the NBCs can will be buried or cremated along with their host.

Let the era of womb to tomb computing begin!

M.O. Thirunarayanan

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/M.O._Thirunarayanan/42993

 

Guide to Building a Gaming Computer

A Gaming Computer, also known as gaming PC, is a personal computer that is capable of playing computationally and graphically demanding video games. They are very similar to conventional computers with the exception that these machines are fitted with performance-oriented video card and other specifications. This type of computers can be easily bought in the market but at a much higher price compared to the conventional computers. Since most of the gamers are both cost and performance conscious, most of them opt to build their own gaming computer than buying a built-in gaming computer.

Building your own custom gaming computer simply means you buy all your computer components separately and piece them up together to guild your gaming PC. With this method you can achieve a fast and cost-effective gaming computer suited to your own gaming needs. Besides saving a lot of money and having an efficient machine, building your own gaming computer can also be a lot of fun.

How to choose your components?

Perhaps the biggest challenge one can face when building their own gaming computer is choosing the right components for your needs. So without further ado, here is a simple guide in order to help you in building your own gaming computer.

1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is one of the most important core components in all computer systems. The CPU is a portion in the system that carries out the instructions of a computer program. In simple terms it could describe as the brains of the computer. The performance of your games and other applications will depend on this microprocessor.

Choosing the best Central Processing Unit (CPU) for your gaming computer can be a hard decision to make. Picking the latest, fastest, or most expensive processor on the market won’t always result in the right CPU for your particular system. Some processors are designed to work with a certain or specific motherboards, thus the CPU type limits the motherboard type you can use.

For a gaming computer, you will really need a powerful CPU for it to performing superbly. Luckily these CPUs are supplied by Intel and AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) at an affordable price.

Intel has the Core i7 and Core i5 processor models. Currently these models are the most popular ones used for gaming purposes, which are mostly recommended for gaming computers.

AMD, on the other hand, has the Athlon and Phenom series. If you want to go AMD, you can try the most recommended Phenom X4 series.

2. Motherboard

The motherboard is the hub of the computer system. It is where all other components are connected to. If we consider the CPU as the brain of the computer system, then the motherboard is the central nervous system. Thus buying the best motherboard is a good investment.

After choosing your CPU, next you need to consider choosing your motherboard for your gaming computer. When selecting a motherboard, you should remember three things.

First, a motherboard will generally support one type of processor only. Different CPUs have different connectors that physically vary with one another, Make sure that your CPU plug is suitable to your mother board connector.

Second, motherboards have a certain speed limitation depending on the processor model. Maximum processor speed allowed by the motherboard will be quoted in the motherboard specifications. Before buying, check whether your selected motherboard can support your chosen CPU.

Third, motherboards are the ones who can dictate the type and amount of RAM you can have. In a gaming computer, you would want to have either DDR SDRAM or RDRAM which is at least 1G worth. So ensure that your motherboard can support this type and amount of memory.

Here are some examples of well-known motherboards manufacturers where you can browse for your perfect gaming motherboard: ASUS, ABIT, MSI, XFX, EVGA, Intel, and Gigabyte.

3. Hard Drive

The hard drive is the computer component responsible for storing your files and programs. When buying a hard drive for your gaming computer, consider these three main features: speed, size, and the type of interface.

[Speed] Basically the faster the hard drive spins the fast you are able to access and transfer your data. Currently, the best hard drives in the market these days can have a speed around 7200rpm (rounds per minute). In a gaming computer, you don’t want anything less than this; else it will cause delays between reading and writing data.

Faster hard drives that reach speeds of 10,000rpm and 15,000rpm are available in the market at a higher price. For your gaming computer, a 7200rpm hard drive is already enough for but if you can shell out more money, then you can opt for these faster hard drives.

[Size] Hard drives come in different sizes, which can range from 80GB to 500GB and more. For your gaming computer, it is always recommended that you purchase the largest hard drive you can afford. This will allow you to store lots and lots of software and data (including games).

[Interface] The interface of the hard drive is responsible for managing the exchange of data between a computer and the hard drive. Currently, the most commonly used hard drive interface used today is Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA); which comes in two forms, the original Parallel ATA (PATA) and the newer and faster Serial ATA (SATA).

There’s also the expensive Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) which are used primarily for high-end workstation computer. For you gaming computer, it is sufficient enough to have the SATA if your motherboard can support it.

4. Video Card

Choosing the right video card that is supported by both your CPU and motherboard is a very important and tough decision to make. The gaming video card you choose will be responsible for producing the dazzling 3D graphics and effects seen in the latest computer games. A better graphics card can deliver a better 3D gaming experience, so the best and affordable video card should be bought for you gaming computer.

The graphic processing unit (GPU) can be connected to your motherboard through AGP or PCI Express slot. For you gaming computer, it is recommended that you use a graphics card connected through a PCI Express slot on your motherboard.

The speed and efficiency of the GPU should not be the only thing that counts when buying your video card. You should also consider the advance 3D rendering effects such as anti-aliasing, anisotropic filtering, bump-mapping, pixel shaders and much more. For your gaming computer, consider a video card that can support such latest 3D rendering techniques in the software world.

Like the CPU market, there are two primary competing companies that current dominate the graphic card. These companies are ATI and nVidia. ATI is responsible for the Radeon series, while nVidia is marketing the GeForce line of cards.

5. Power Supply

One of the vital and overlooked components of the computer system is the power supply. Without a power supply, the computer will not be able to operate its functions. Its main purpose is to convert AC power from the main line to usable low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. The power supply gives out three different DC voltages to your computer 12VDC, 5VDC, and 3VDC which are used differently by computer components.

Each power supply has a certain amount of energy or wattage based on their maximum output power. Wattages commonly ranges from 300W to 500W but some high-end gaming power supply can reach ranges of 800W to 1kW.

If you want to use a power supply for you gaming computer, it is recommended to have at least a power supply ranging from 500W and above.

6. Gaming Monitor

One of the most expensive components in your gaming computer would be the computer monitor. When buying a gaming computer monitor you only need to consider three things: size, native resolution, and price.

[Size] Computer monitors comes in different sizes from the small 15 inches to a larger 23 inches, and even larger. 17 inches is a common size and large enough for most people, but if you want to increase your viewing and gaming experience then a larger size monitor is advisable.

[Native Resolution] Each monitor has been designed for a certain resolution, which is known as the native resolution. If you change the resolution of a monitor to a resolution that doesn’t coincide with its native resolution; the image will then be scaled and the quality will be lessen significantly. Native resolution of a monitor is dependent on its size. Here are some examples of native resolution for common sizes:

17 inches 1024×768

19 inches 1280×1024

20 inches 1600×1200

[Cost] Prices vary greatly between sizes, where smaller ones cost cheaper than larger ones. So choose a size that can satisfy your need while taking into consideration your budget.

7. Gaming Keyboard

Custom built keyboards designed specifically for gaming can give an edge to a gamer using it. But currently, there is no general gaming keyboard that can be recommended for all gamers. Why? This is due to the fact that different gamers have different or varying styles of play, posture, and wrist anatomy. So basically, there is no such thing as a gaming keyboard that is best for everyone.

According to Build-Gaming-Computers, one of the best gaming keyboards available in the market is the Logitech G15 Gaming Keyboard. This keyboard has been custom-made to meet a gamer’s need. It specifically features:

a. An adjustable, backlit LCD screen that displays important in-game information during gameplay;

b. Backlit keys to play in the dark or low-lit areas;

c. 18 programmable “G keys” used to execute macros; and

d. Timer controls to keep track of game events.

8. Gaming Mouse

Like the gaming keyboard, choosing the best gaming mouse can help increase the level of your gaming experience. Using a custom-designed gaming mouse gives the best accuracy and control which allows you to play games at your best.

Computer mouse come in different types which are the optical, laser, and ball mice types. Currently, optical and laser type mouse are commonly used due to their precision and better tracking, allowing for more accuracy and control.

When selecting the best mouse for your gamin computer, you should consider a number of factors. One of the most important one is the resolution. Resolution is the number of pixels per inch a mouse’s optical sensor and focusing lens can see when you move the mouse around. The higher the resolution a mouse has, the better the accuracy and precision.

Next consider the responsiveness of the mouse. It is the number of megapixels per second the mouse can process. This is important especially in fast-paced games such as first person shooters games. The more megapixels per second the mouse can process, the more responsive it is; thus it offers faster and precise control in your games.

So when buying a gaming mouse, consider the resolution and responsiveness of the mouse you are going to buy.

Custom Gaming Computer Builds

Here are some examples of custom gaming computer builds suggested by Build-Gaming-Computers.

The Budget Gaming Desktop

CPU: AMD Phenom II X4 955 Black Edition Quad Core Processor

Price: 140.00

Motherboard: Asus M4A79XTD EVO Motherboard

Price: 100.00

RAM: Corsair XMS3 4GB Dual Channel DDR3 RAM

Price: 50.00

Hard Drive: Western Digital Caviar Black 500 GB

Price: 55.00

Video Card: Sapphire 100283-3L Radeon HD 5770 Video Card

Price: 100.00

Power Supply: Thermaltake TPX-775M Toughpower XT 775W Power Supply

Price: 70.00

Total

Price: 515.00

The Mid-Range Gaming Desktop

CPU: Intel Core i5-2500K BX80623I52500 Unlocked Processor

Price: 230.00

Motherboard: ASUS P8P67 Pro Intel P67 Motherboard

Price: 200.00

RAM: Corsair XMS3 4GB Dual Channel DDR3 RAM

Price: 50.00

Hard Drive: Western Digital Caviar Black 500 GB

Price: 55.00

Video Card: XFX HD585XZAFC Radeon HD 5850

Price: 150.00

Power Supply: Cooler Master GX Series 650W

Price: 95.00

Total

Price: 780.00

The High-End Gaming Desktop

CPU: Intel Core i7 960

Price: 570.00

Motherboard: ASUS P6T Motherboard

Price: 230.00

RAM: Corsair XMS3 Tri Channel 12GB

Price: 230.00

Hard Drive: Intel X25-M Solid State Hard Drive 80 GB

Price: 220.00

or

Western Digital Caviar Black 1TB

Price: 95.00

Video Card: Sapphire Radeon HD 5970 2GB

Price: 680.00

Power Supply: Corsair TX750W 750-Watt Power Supply

Price: 110.00

Total

Price: 2135.00

Miscellaneous

Mouse

Logitech MX518 Gaming Mouse

Price: 43.00

Logitech Gaming Mouse G500

Price: 50.00

Keyboard

Logitech G15 Gaming Keyboard

Price: 95.00

Logitech G19 Gaming Keyboard

Price: 190.00

Monitor

ACER X223WDbd 22″ Widescreen LCD

Price: 150.00

Samsung P2570HD 25″ Widescreen LCD

Price: 290.00

Samsung P2770HD 27″ LCD Monitor

Price: 350.00

HP 2709M 27″ Full HD Widescreen LCD Monitor

Price: 380.00

A long time gamer and writer for http://www.gamingclimax.com.

I love MMORPG’s, and everything gaming industry related.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Porthos_Du_Vallon/1109450

 

Computer Desktop CPU Fans

A CPU or central processing unit is the main part of a computer desktop. There are many components in a computer desktop like the motherboard, hard drive, processor, and other essential parts that make up a functional computer. The fan is a very important for a computer desktop because it keeps the computer cool while it is working.

If the fan is not working then the computer will automatically shut down because it is overheating. Using a computer without a fan can permanently damage the components and soon it will not turn on at all. Most people who use computers are not computer technicians. Many people like myself use the computers for business, education, and entertainment. When something goes wrong with the computer, people either send it to a computer technician, or in extreme cases, trash the current computer that is not working and buy a new one. Either way, fixing the problem is expensive.

One of the cheapest ways is to fix the problem yourself. Fixing a computer yourself is scary, especially if you don’t know how. Most of the components that make up the computer are actually practical to fix because the components are easy to install. For example: the fan in a typical computer desktop is easy to plug-in. Aside from viruses and physical accidents, overheating due to faulty or broken fans is also a major problem in computer operations.

It is very frustrating when you are doing something very important on your computer and it fails because it overheated. If you are going to fix or replace the CPU fan yourself it would be best if you can find the plans or instructions to help guide you. You can either go online or go to the library and look for the company that built your computer. Generally most computer desktops are the same, but depending on the brand or type, some fans are in different parts of the computer. The CPU fan could be next to the mother board, but in most cases, it is usually located by the power supply. The fan and the power supply are usually in the rear of the computer desktop. Here are a few simple steps in replacing a fan for a typical computer desktop.

1) Before you even start replacing the CPU fan, you must make sure that you have the right fan. Not all fans fit different computer desktops. Each computer company has their own CPU fans for their computers. Always check with a certified store clerk or computer technician to make sure that the fan you are buying is the one for your computer desktop. You can start replacing the fan on your computer desktop once you have the right one.

2) Start by taking off the computer casing. The casing is either screwed or snapped down by a lever. Most casings are held in place by screws, so you will need a screw driver. If the casing has screws, remove the screws, take off the casing and place it on the side. Keep the screws close to the casing.

3) Look for the CPU fan, it is most likely mounted by a few screws next to the mother board and/or the power supply. You must take the screws off to replace the old fan. Most fans are simple plug-in. To remove the old CPU fan, unplug it and then plug-in the new fan. (If you bought a new fan from the computer store, chances are it will come with instructions on how to replace the fan.)

4) Once you have replaced the CPU fan, remount it. Don’t put the computer casing on yet you need to check and see if the fan works. Plug in the computer and turn it on. After you have checked if the fan works shut it off and put the casing back on and screw it back in place. That’s it! If you are not sure about changing the CPU fan by yourself, you can always get help online through computer or technical forums. You can also check through search engines. There are also technical chat rooms online that can help guide you.

If you are interested in finding out more about computers, leave a comment on our contact page. Check us out at: [http://www.computerlaptopnotebook4less.com]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Gideon_Johnson/1039316