Human-Computer Interaction


Web Design and Human Computer Interaction

Internet is A necessary A part of our modern day lifetime. It’s taking on a task in our own and business life. Now we buy and provide on the net, financial institution on the internet, socialize online and ton a lot more. And after we talk about Online we discuss websites. Website would be the media of speaking in between human and Online. So it’s essential for all the internet builders to make certain the Sites connect with its buyers and that’s The crucial element to achievements.

You will find hundreds of thousands and billions of websites are online but only some per cent of them are profitable. Whenever a developer build an internet site they have to abide by selected guidelines which we call HCI procedures.. Ben Shneiderman is properly know between all the internet designers for his “8 Golden Principles of Interface Design”. But nevertheless in the vast majority of Sites The foundations are exploited or not effectively adopted. It depends on World-wide-web designer how their Web-sites likely to seem like although the key thing and motive should be to connect with the typical consumers. So just about every Sites should feed the requires on the customers and for that the following 8 golden regulations should be adopted meticulously.

Attempt for consistencies: The website want to possess a very clear and simple most important menu. Many of the menu selections really need to pertinent and constant. The capabilities like inbound links, fall checklist, command buttons etc has to be used correctly and carefully. Very clear and relevant style interface need to be employed by way of out.

Enable Regular people to make use of shortcut: The many Web-sites ought to be convenient to use with the Repeated end users. The consumer must have the capacity to obtain required information and facts in a single click on. So navigation must be in-depth and people should really go to chosen internet pages straight away. Most the Web sites use Back hyperlinks to return to prior internet pages or most important menu.

Present enlightening opinions: In each websites, there must be amenities for the consumers to acquire in contact With all the Internet designer and deliver the thoughts or opinions abut the web site.

Style dialogue to produce closure: Internet websites need to be enlightening but however organised. Some time Internet sites are far too educational and way too extensive. Info need to be organised appropriately into teams or matters and simple to look because of the buyers.

Provide straightforward error managing: To make it much more user-welcoming there isn’t any good utilization of mistake dealing with (e.g. mistake message) for most the Internet websites. So it can be very hard for the buyers to enter or retrieve selected details from the web-site. If customers make an mistake, instruction ought to be supplied to detect the mistake and offer you basic, constructive, efficient and precise instruction for recovery.

Permit effortless reversal of motion: With regards to majority Internet sites there won’t be any easy approach to return from unique internet pages towards the necessary webpage. The one technique to return into the former or proffered page is by returning to menu by choosing Again link and selecting a different solution. Internet websites should really facilitate customers to return to most well-liked webpages straight absent by way of a easy navigation method.

Support inside locus of Handle: Vast majority of your Sites are samples of very poor demand on the method. Professional consumers wish to be in demand. Surprising process steps, wearisome sequences of knowledge entries, incapacity or trouble in acquiring necessary details, and incapability to produce the action wanted all Make anxiety and dissatisfaction where by Significantly information and facts can not be downloaded possibly accessed by the person.

Newest Tendencies That Will Established The Stage For Application Solution Tests

As corporations are heading to digitalization, program growth sector is getting to be a lot more technically superior with embracing latest systems. It is aiming to deliver superior-class program merchandise and expert services to their clientele/buyers. Because of to the growth of impressive and intricate merchandise, program solution tests is quickly locating its application and strategical value in diverse phases of program growth life cycle.

According to the latest research carried out by the solution tests businesses in New Jersey, it is uncovered that the need for solution tests is expected to maximize by fifteen% this calendar year. Right now corporations are intended to continue to be competitive in terms of functionality and safety. Also, testers are having difficulties to solve problems imposed by new systems, for that reason resulted in the substantial adoption of automation tests and other systems which are mainly shaping this IT sector.

Listed here, we are outlining a couple latest trends evolving out for program solution tests. It would be interesting to examine that how leveraging these trends can enable enterprises as well as tests gurus to strategize their solution tests expert services.

Huge Information &amp Analytics Testing Will Expose Their Opportunity:

Right now, Huge details and analytics have manifested their prospective to the organizations thanks to their functionality of giving worthwhile insights on essential business aspects. Even so, majorities of the businesses have currently produced investments in Huge Information, it is more expected to improve a lot more than $210 billion by the calendar year 2020.

For this rationale, businesses would will need to strategize all over Huge Information tests to take a look at huge chunks of details availed from several sources. To retain the integrity of the details, businesses would demand superior analytical procedures, applications, and frameworks, so definitely it is likely to just take a substantial leap this calendar year.

Agile and Continuous Integration Will Stay Crucial:

Since agile growth methodology facilitates versatility and transparency across several processes, organizations are taking into consideration to spend in agile tests.

Also, with utilizing continual integration (CI), developers can instantly integrate their code into a shared repository. As well as, they can effortlessly determine bugs in the course of the iteration and can rectify it at the major developmental stage. This way, agile and CI makes certain customer’s needs by providing a superior-high quality solution at a quick velocity.

DevOps Adoption Will Rule The Sector:

Vast majority of the businesses have currently invested in DevOps and it is likely to maximize constantly since DevOps provides the positive aspects of cross-purposeful skills top to more quickly recovery, a lot more deployments, and very low failure costs. Hence, odds are, that IT industries can before long have an comprehensive in-property group of developers and testers.

Cell &amp Cloud-based tests Will Turn out to be Progress:

Right now, the sector is flooded with smartphones income majorly thanks to the introduction of cell apps. Researches have uncovered that until now buyers have downloaded all over 300 billion applications which eventually has generated a revenue of $78billion.

The awesome advancement of smartphones and the cell app acceptance procedure will maintain cell tests as a important part of tests strategies. Also, since industries are focusing on providing seamless user working experience for cell equipment, the requirement of cell tests will constantly maximize.

Apart from this, cloud computing will also improve majorly thanks to offering expense-effective business answers. In fact, by 2020, it is expected that cloud will hugely influence essential business conclusions truly worth about a trillion pounds. Also, industries will migrate numerous new tests methods this sort of as- like DevOps tests, cell app tests etcetera. to the cloud. Quite possibly, container-based answers will achieve a lot more value than digital equipment.

five Distinctive Varieties of Printed Circuit Boards

A printed circuit board (PCB) is a typical ingredient in several different digital gadgets, these types of as computers, radars, beepers, and so on. They are designed from a wide variety of products with laminate, composite and fiberglass the most widespread. Also, the sort of circuit board can vary with the intended use. Let’s get a appear at 5 of the different kinds:

One sided – this is the most normal circuit board and is constructed with a one layer or foundation materials. The one layer is coated with a conductive materials like copper. They may well also have a silk display screen coat or a protecting solder mask on top rated of the copper layer. A terrific gain of this sort of PCB is the lower generation charge and they are frequently utilised in mass-manufactured items.

Double sided – this is significantly like the one sided, but has the conductive materials on both of those sides. There are several holes in the board to make it uncomplicated to attach metallic sections from the top rated to base side. This sort of circuit board improves operational flexibility and is a functional possibility to build the more dense circuit layouts. This board is also somewhat lower-charge. Nonetheless, it however isn’t really a functional possibility for the most advanced circuits and is unable to work with know-how that cuts down electromagnetic interference. They are typically utilised in amplifiers, power checking devices, and tests devices.

Multi-layer – the multi-layer circuit board is constructed with extra layers of conductive products. The higher selection of layers which can access 30 or more means it is possible to make a circuit style and design with quite higher flexibility. The unique layers are separated by special insulating products and substrate board. A terrific reward of this sort of board is the compact dimension, which can help to save space and weight in a somewhat tiny product or service. Also, they are primarily utilised when it is essential to use a higher-pace circuit.

Adaptable – this is a quite multipurpose circuit board. It is not only created with a versatile layer, but also obtainable in the one, double, or multi-layer boards. They are a terrific possibility when it is essential to save space and weight when setting up a specific system. Also, they are appreciated for higher ductility and lower mass. Nonetheless, the versatile character of the board can make them more difficult to use.

Rigid – the rigid circuit board is constructed with a sound, non-versatile materials for its layers. They are typically compact in dimension and capable to manage the advanced circuit layouts. As well as, the signal paths are uncomplicated to arrange and the means to manage and maintenance is fairly easy.

Leading Guidelines And Tips About Desktop Personal computers

Do you want to obtain a new laptop or computer? Are you bewildered as to how to store for a person? You aren’t on your own. A good deal of people feel that way. Continue to keep reading through to obtain out what you have to have to know.

Obtain somebody who is obtaining rid of their desktop. A lot of people right now are heading for tablets and laptops, and since of this you can obtain a great desktop laptop or computer at a incredibly pleasant value. These pcs are usually in great condition, but just before you make an give, make absolutely sure it operates ok.

Conduct a boot examine if you obtain that your laptop or computer is running slower than it should. Operate the MS Config program, discovered on the start menu. This menu will display which systems are introduced each and every time the laptop or computer boots. If there are systems you rarely use, click on them so they do not commence when you boot your laptop or computer. This will aid your laptop or computer speed up.

Search at the incorporate-ons when acquiring a desktop. Most types contain optional components. Be particular to only order what you have to have. Also, make absolutely sure the incorporate-ons aren’t accessible in other places for substantially a lot less. Something obtained from the laptop or computer company by itself is normally priced considerably greater.

Evaluate how substantially space you have in the spot you approach to locate your desktop laptop or computer. Desktops have massive variations in dimensions. Some will have a compact profile, whilst other people will choose up a good deal of vertical space. You have to understand what you can definitely fit in the space you have.

If you want your laptop or computer to accomplish day in and out at substantial concentrations, make absolutely sure you dust out the interior each and every 7 days. Unscrew the circumstance and spray the interior with compressed air in a can. Undertaking so retains your computer’s insides cleanse and allows the cooling procedure keep the components at great temperatures.

Make absolutely sure there is some sort of guarantee offered when you obtain your laptop or computer. This will make the monetary load less difficult if it had been to split. Normally, you will be capable to return to the keep the place you obtained it and get repairs built or your laptop or computer replaced.

If you’re contemplating about a Mac desktop, but you have bought Personal computer systems, think about investing in a duplicate of Parallels for Mac. Parallels for Mac allows you run a digital Windows on a Mac. Working with this process, you can run an Personal computer software that you possess. Bear in mind the Personal computer programs have to be obtained independently.

A lot of brands no extended contain all needed documentation on paper in its place, they article it on-line. Make absolutely sure that you don’t close up in a bind if you cannot get on-line.

If you would like to move massive video data files, believe about a laptop or computer with an optical DVD travel that is writable. CD drives do not have the capability to keep larger media data files. If which is the circumstance, it is really a have to to phase it up to a DVD travel. It will value you more, but you’ll sooner or later be thankful you upgraded.

If you are somebody fascinated in the heading eco-friendly motion, there is a laptop or computer termed a mini Personal computer. They call for minor electricity, but usually give ample processing to achieve widespread jobs. If heading on-line to examine e mail, Fb, establish paperwork, then a device like this should match your wants.

Will not obsess above value drops. A lot of people look at offers when they get into the desktop laptop or computer acquiring marketplace. They never ever adhere to by means of when they are often waiting around for that magic deal. A lot of firms know what sort of price ranges other firms are charging, so the actuality is that most discount rates will glimpse incredibly substantially the same as the next price reduction.

There is no have to have to feel intimidated when acquiring a laptop or computer! This short article will display you the very best path to choose when making an attempt to obtain a laptop or computer. Print out this piece and convey it with you to the keep. If support is nonetheless wanted, ask the employee at the keep for aid.

Mistake in Home windows 10

The 0xc0000076 mistake is triggered by a lack of a “library” on Windows, ordinarily Visible C++, DirectX or equivalent.

The mistake displays when you are hoping to operate a “massive” software such as a video game or some kind of graphics software. It is triggered mainly because the software will demand an factor from the library, which is possibly not set up or not accessible on your system.

The mistake will ordinarily exhibit as “0xc0000076” or far more typically “0xc000007b” mistake, cited following the software tries to load.

The way to resolve this dilemma is to be certain that you have the appropriate library / dependencies essential by the software to operate. It must take care of 90% of the problems with the mistake.


The typical mistake concept for the 0xc0000076 mistake is as follows:

The software failed to initialize effectively (0xc0000076)

The crucial to fixing this is to fully grasp that just about every software on Windows needs a sequence of “libraries” or “dependencies” to aid it operate.

These libraries are saved on the difficult generate as DLL information, purposes such as DirectX and “redistributable” offers such as Visible C++. Although Microsoft distributes most of the most well known libraries, there are a quantity provided by other businesses far too.

The bottom line of the 0xc0000076 mistake is that your system is unable to load the dependencies essential to operate the software.

Remedy Measures

1. Reinstall Visible C++

Visible C++ is ordinarily the perpetrator below. It is a assortment of plans distributed by Microsoft to aid greatly enhance the performance of Windows.

Unfortunately, like quite a few factors “Microsoft”, they have overcomplicated it – earning VC++ a totally third party down load and splitting up involving distinct versions, just about every of which has to be downloaded in get to offer the essential performance.

Unfortunately, it is typically the scenario that even if the accurate VC++ is set up, it results in being weakened or corrupted, protecting against purposes from looking at it effectively.

The initial phase to fixing the 0xc0000076 mistake, thus, is to be certain you’ve set up the hottest versions of the essential VC++ redistributable offers…

    • In Windows 7, click on to “Start off” &gt “Manage Panel” &gt “Include / Remove Systems”
    • In Windows 10, suitable-click on to “Start off” / “Windows” button &gt pick out “Systems and Attributes”
    • From the checklist that seems, pick out any versions of “Microsoft Visible C++ Redistributable”, and Observe DOWN their year quantity (this is significant)
    • Following noting down the many years, you must then suitable-click just about every of the listings and pick out “Uninstall”
    • Following uninstalling them, restart your Personal computer
    • Following restart, you can require to look through to Google and glimpse for “Microsoft hottest visual C++ offers”
    • For just about every of the “many years” that you pointed out down in advance of, down load the appropriate down load and put in.

A brief take note on this topic – when you down load just about every VC++ bundle, you can be requested no matter whether you want the “x64” or “x86” variation. This corresponds to the “architecture” of your system.If you are not absolutely sure which variation of Windows you have, you require to do the adhering to:

    • Press “Windows” + “R” keys on your keyboard
    • In the “Operate” dialogue, form “dxdiag” and press “Enter”
    • When DXDiag displays, glimpse for the “Functioning Program” listing
    • Acquire take note of no matter whether it truly is 64-little bit or 32-little bit – 64-little bit is x64 and 32-little bit is x86
    • From there, you must put in the a variety of VC++ offers and then let it operate.

two. Update DirectXSubsequent, you require to update DirectX.

DirectX is a core factor of Windows which makes it possible for your system to operate 3D graphics etc.

Unfortunately, thanks to quite a few game titles etc putting their own versions of DirectX information on to your system, it is typically the scenario that purposes will exhibit a massive quantity of faults etc with it.

If this is the scenario, you can want to put in the “update” to DirectX which must replace any of the most likely weakened information it may have…

    • Click on to “Google” and glimpse for “DirectX Download” – click the initial link
    • Click on the orange “Download” button
    • Click “No many thanks and go on”
    • Save the file to your difficult generate
    • Open the software and click via the procedure (make absolutely sure you you should not settle for the “Bing Bar” scamware)
    • Let it put in the information essential to update DirectX
    • Restart your Personal computer

After your Personal computer has restarted, you must carry on to the upcoming phase.three. Reinstall.Web

.Web is equivalent to the over two dependencies, in that it presents a massive quantity of functions, information and settings essential to get Windows performing effectively.

Unfortunately, like the other individuals, it can turn into weakened or corrupted. If this is the scenario, you can want to update it to the hottest variation, which can be finished with the adhering to:

    • In Windows 7, click on to “Start off” &gt pick out “Manage Panel” &gt “Include / Remove Systems”
    • In Windows 10, suitable-click on to “Start off” / “Windows” button &gt pick out “Systems and Attributes”
    • From the dialogue that displays, click on “Transform Windows functions on or off” – Uncheck “.Web three.five” and “.Web four.six.two” and then click “Ok”
    • Let the uninstall procedure transpire &amp restart your Personal computer
    • Following restart, you can want to glimpse on Google for “.net website installer”
    • Click the orange “Download” button and then carry on to put in the bundle.

This will replace any of the.Web framework information which may be weakened or corrupted on the system. This will generally reset the vast majority of dependencies on your system which *could* be weakened.Further more to this, you can also want to be certain any “registry” faults are cleaned out on your Personal computer…

four. Clean Out Registry Glitches

Registry faults are triggered when the Windows “registry” results in being weakened or corrupted.

The registry is a central databases which Windows utilizes to store all the settings and options your system needs to operate.

This databases is dependable for every little thing from your desktop wallpaper to person avatar. Unfortunately, it can turn into weakened or corrupted – protecting against your Personal computer from becoming able to read through the settings it needs.

To deal with this, you can be greatest cleansing it out with a “registry cleaner”:

    • Download a trustworthy registry cleaner resource (I only advocate CCleaner in 2018 which is accessible from “Piriform” – just Google “CCleaner Download”)
    • Install the resource and load it up
    • Let it scan the registry of your system (other pieces like Junk Files you should not make a difference so much)
    • Following the scan, clear / eliminate any of the issues it uncovered
    • Restart your Personal computer

This not only makes sure you are able to deal with any of the likely issues that your computer system may have, but it also makes sure that you are able to operate the plans efficiently.five. Clean Out Malware &amp Reinstall Graphics Driver

If the over steps you should not perform, the upcoming is to reinstall your system’s graphics driver (sure, this is a valid induce of the mistake).

To do this, you can want to down load “DDU” (Screen Driver Uninstaller) from Guru3D. This eliminates **all** of the graphics driver computer software that your system will have set up…

    • Click on to the DDU down load site: (you can have to Google “DDU Download”)
    • Save the file to your system
    • Restart your Personal computer into “Safe and sound Manner”

To do this, there are varying strategies depending on which variation of Windows you are running:

    • In Windows 7, click on “Start off” &gt “Restart”
    • When your system restarts, press F8 regularly on the keyboard in advance of nearly anything commences to load
    • This will carry up the “State-of-the-art Boot Selections” menu from which you require to pick out “Safe and sound Manner”
    • In Windows 10, click on “Start off” / “Windows” button (bottom remaining corner)
    • Pick the “Energy” button – Holding Shift, press “Restart”
    • This will carry up the blue “Restoration Natural environment” display.
    • From below, pick “Troubleshoot” &gt “State-of-the-art Selections” &gt “Startup Configurations” &gt “Restart”
    • When the system reboots, it will load the “State-of-the-art Boot Selections” display from which you can be able to pick “Safe and sound Manner” From below, you can enter “Safe and sound Manner”.
    • You require to click on to the DDU software you downloaded and then let it operate.
    • You will want to pick “Clean and Restart (Proposed)”.

This will entirely eliminate the graphics driver, which *must* resolve any remaining occurrences of the mistake. Let the system restart into “normal” mode and then try loading the software once again.After in “normal” mode, you can have to get the graphics driver set up once again. In Windows 10, this will ordinarily be finished immediately. The level is that if you have some custom made driver, it may be causing some kind of conflicts, which will be fixed by totally eliminating it with DDU.

If the over won’t perform, you may have a deeper concern within just Windows.

Aside from making use of a far more potent mistake cleaner resource, you may benefit from trying to get far more distinct information. To do this, I would advocate possibly looking at a restore dude (who’ll have *accurately* the similar tips as me), or inquiring on line.


There are several solutions which can do this. These are no cost and generally give you the ability to get information certain to your mistake/dilemma with no getting to wait around for the generic help offered by most out-of-date “tech help” solutions.


What Should really Your Staff Know About Computer Protection?

The selection a single threat in opposition to the security of your information and facts process is the insider threat. Make guaranteed that your staff know how to properly purpose with computers. Failing to do so is a lack of owing diligence on your portion.

Amid what staff ought to know as a bare minimal is outlined below:

What style of information and facts does your company approach?
What are the employees’ basic duties for information and facts security?
What are the factors of the organization’s password policy?
What are the security finest methods that staff ought to observe?
What qualifies as a clean operate location that supports security?
What style of threats ought to staff be on guard in opposition to?
What are some common attack approaches?
What actions ought to staff just take when an attack takes place?
What are the firm’s email guidelines?
What are the firm’s social media and website surfing guidelines?

Your staff ought to be mindful of how raw facts is processed to build information and facts and how it is made use of by your company to make essential conclusions and a revenue.

Get it incorrect and the company loses.

The individuals who operate for you and third functions who occur into get hold of with your process ought to be seen as probable threats. That is why an information and facts security plan ought to be in spot and all people ought to be mindful. Anything much less is the equal of obtaining your proverbial “pants down all-around your ankles”.

Each and every personnel is dependable for computer security and the assurance of your digital assets. People who receive and approach company facts ought to be mindful of all their duties. These who operate for you need to be mindful and accountable.

Each particular person who functions in your business ought to be security mindful and know what to do in the occasion of an attempted or genuine attack. Anything much less and your individuals will fall short.

All people ought to know how to maintain a safe workspace, in which sensitive papers are eradicated from perspective. Personnel ought to know how to lock their keyboards to maintain passersby from observing screens and accessing terminals.

All individuals in the company ought to know how to build and maintain robust passwords or multi-aspect authentication. Passwords ought to be sophisticated and periodically adjusted. An business-broad digital security program ought to be maintained and periodically evaluated.
Procedures relating to security ought to conform to company and marketplace finest methods. They have to be portion of every employee’s security recognition teaching. For example, the individuals who operate for you ought to know that storage media from outside the house of the business have to be properly scanned before introducing it into your information and facts process.

Your individuals ought to be mindful of the common attack approaches that cyber criminals and other individuals use. A seemingly harmless request for information and facts around the phone could be the starting of a social engineering attack designed to receive critical information and facts to crack into the firm’s process.

E-mail requirements be a portion of the organization’s guidelines for defending sensitive information and facts. At the time all over again, obtaining guidelines ought to be a portion of an organization’s owing diligence hard work to maintain cyber criminals at bay and out of your process. Your employees have to know how to take care of various conditions that arise. Only clicking on a destructive hyperlink could compromise your full process.

The use of social media platforms and surfing the Internet could open up up several avenues for destructive users into your process. You staff need to know what is regarded as to be an suitable exercise when it arrives to utilizing Internet sources. You company could be observed liable, for example, if an personnel wrote something disparaging about an ethnic team or your assets could even be made use of for unlawful needs with out your awareness.

Preserving the confidentiality, integrity and availability of your firm’s mission crucial information and facts needs that all those who operate for your company ought to have the tools to do so. Acquiring a formal information and facts security plan is a basic necessity. You are in true problems and have by now shed the battle in opposition to cybercriminals if you do not have a plan. And if you do have a plan and your staff are unaware – the same retains accurate.

You have to start off dealing with computer security as a company approach.

Computer Viruses and How to Deal With Them

1- What is a computer virus:

A computer virus is a software program which is able to replicate itself and spread from one infected computer to another. The infected objects can be system, program or document files. After infecting your computer, it might slow it down, damage the contents of the infected files, mislay the data or defect your computer systems normal operation.

The virus can also use your computer to propagate illegal adverts and send spam emails that exploit security (adWare), steal your personal information such as bank account number, credit card number etc. (SpyWare). Some types of viruses might use your computer to create a bot net (virtual computer network) to attack other server systems and websites etc.

2- Type of viruses on Windows based computers:

There are a number of computer viruses that can impede the functioning of your computer. Here are some of the different types of viruses:

Trojan Horse: It is an email virus that is created by a file attached to the email. If opened, it may scour your hard drive for any personal and financial information such as your social security, account and PIN numbers. Once it has collected your info, it is sent via the internet to a hacker or thief.

Macro Virus: It is a computer virus that infects the Visual Basic language documents for applications such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel etc. This type of virus can cause damage (such as removing data on the hard disk for example).

Worms: It is a program that has the ability to self-replicate itself. It can move from one computer to another and replicate itself in your computer system then spread hundreds of its copies to other computers that might cause wide spread damage.

Rootkit Virus: It is a program that is possible to cover the processes, files and data in the computer Registry (a database which is used to save Windows’s system and program settings). Rootkit is usually used to hide the activities of viruses and processes which harm your computer. It is to help a hacker to control the system.

Bootsector Virus: A virus which attaches itself to the first part of the hard disk that is read by the computer upon bootup. These are normally spread by floppy disks.

Logic Bombs: It is a program that is used to send many data to the same email address and overwhelm the system or block the server connection. It is also used to threaten others (for example mail bomb etc.).

Memory Resident Virus: This type of virus dwells in the RAM. From there it can overcome and interrupt the operations executed by the system. It can corrupt files and programs that are opened, closed, copied, renamed etc.

Multipartite Virus: These viruses spread in multiple ways. It might vary in its action depending upon where it’s installed and the presence of certain files.

3- How do you get a virus and Prevention:

These are 3 common ways that your computer may get infected by viruses:

Email: You get an email from a person that contains one or more viruses. If the attachment is opened, the viruses may infect files in the computer. The viruses might also send emails to people from your email address book or email folders automatically. So, you should not open unknown attachments in emails or do a virus scanning after opening them.

Internet: If you download an exe file or a data file from the Internet or other shared networks, viruses might be transferred to your computer. Sometimes the free software programs on the Internet have viruses especially if downloading from sources such as Torrent or Usenet news groups. Therefore, if necessary, you should download files from trusted resources.

Peripheral devices: The devices such as MP3 player, USB thumb drive, Memory card or CD Rom are also means for spreading viruses. So, remember to do a virus scan for them after they are connected to your computer.

4- Symptoms of virus infection:

These are some of symptoms which may indicate virus activity:

• Your computer has unusual activity (e.g. programs crashing a lot or running slowly).

• Messages or images (unrelated to your current task) come up unexpectedly.

• A program may start up unexpectedly.

• Your firewall informs that a certain application is trying to connect to the Internet (unrelated to what you are working on).

• Your friends say that they get emails from you but you did not send any to them.

• You receive many system error announcements. (Note: This may also come from another activity such as a hardware problem or genuine system error)

• Windows does not run when you start up your computer. (Note: This may also come from a hard disk problem)

• You realise that folders and files are removed or changed.

• You find that there’s an access to your hard disk (one of the small light is blinking) even though there are no programs running.

• Your web browser has abnormal indications, for example it opens an unknown web page or you cannot close the browser tabs.

• Advertising pages pop up, desktop wallpaper changes.

• Exe files occur and have the same names as the folders.

• On the right corner of your computer, there is a small symbol written “Your computer is infected” or “Virus Alert” etc.

• When you open an USB thumb drive, unknown files such as Autorun.inf, New Folder.exe etc. appear.

• Cannot press Control + Alt + Delete (Task Manager) and you are warned that Administrator banned it.

• Folder Options disappears.

• Your computer keeps restarting when you try to shut it down.

• You cannot log in your Windows account with the right logon details.

5- What to do when infected:

• Make sure that your Antivirus software is the latest update. If necessary, download the update from another computer and update it manually.

• Disconnect from the Internet or Local Area Network (LAN).

• If Windows is not running, start it in Safe Mode (when turning on your computer, keep pressing F8 as soon as the computer starts running, then choose ‘Safe Mode’ from the Menu).

• Run a full Anti-Virus scan.

• If your computer is quite infected but you have important files or documents on it, do a full scan with your updated Antivirus software. If it finds viruses, delete all of them then open each ancillary disk (USB, Thumb drive etc.) and look for Autorun.inf files and remove them. Afterward, restart your computer.

• If you have any difficulties with finding a way to remove bad programs, refer to your Internet Security Software Supplier to look for an essential dedicated tool to remove them.

• If you find a bad program, follow the instructions of your Internet Security Software Supplier. Good Security software will provide with options such as disabling infected files, isolating possibly infected files, Worms and Trojans removal.

• If you do not have any important files on your computer disks, format the disk and then re-install your Windows and applications. This is quite an extreme and lengthy process and it’s recommended to back up your computer settings prior to commencing. When finished, do not open on any ancillary disks (USB, Thumb drives etc.) yet, install the Antivirus software, do a full scan, find Autorun.inf files and remove them. Restart your computer after that.

• If the Anti-Virus software does not find anything, your computer is possibly not infected. Check your hardware and software that is installed on your computer meets the hardware specifications of the Operating System. Delete unnecessary or unwanted programs to save resources and ensure you have updated your Windows OS via Windows Update.

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Why Is My Computer Running Slow? Fix Your Problem Quickly!

If you are asking, ‘why is my computer running so slow how to speed up computer’ then you are at the right place. Many computer users have this question in their minds after they have purchased brand new computers only a few months ago. During the first few months of the purchase, it runs at blazing speed but as time passes, it becomes painfully slow.

The fact of the matter is that the computers are not to be blamed for your query: why is my computer running so slow, how to speed up computer. Mostly, it is because of lack of computer maintenance which prevents it from running at its original speed. Moreover, there are various things that come into play for making the computer slow.

Most of the time, it is in fact not the computers to blame but it is because you have not maintained your computer to keep running at its peak performance level. So, why does a computer begin slowing down? It can be lots of various things that play a role here. Therefore, if you have the question, why is my computer running so slow, how to speed up computer, then the answer is in the following lines.

The first thing to do is to ensure that the computer is virus free. Malware, Trojans, Spyware and other dangerous programs are the common culprits for slowing down the computer. For example, illicit activities can be performed by a Spyware without your knowledge such as sending hidden data to particular destination for exploiting the weakness of the system. This may compromise your password, login, credit card details. This will lead to your question: why is my computer running so slow and how to speed up computer.

Therefore, to ensure that the system is clean you need to use an updated antivirus for scanning the computer. It is of great importance to install a good anti-virus on your computer. After scanning the PC if it is still slow then you can follow the next procedure. That is, deleting unnecessary programs and files on the desktop. If you have too many shortcuts displayed on the desktop then it will slow down the computer. This is another answer to your question: why is my computer running so slow and how to speed up computer.

Upgrading the memory of the computer is another way to increase the speed. If your PC is more than a year old then probably it is not able to meet anymore the memory requirements. So, it is recommended that a computer should contain minimum of 1 GB memory for the latest updates of software.

Another reason for your computer to run slow is because of overheated processor. Therefore, you need to make sure that the processor is not overheated. Extreme heat results in substantial reduction of the performance of the computer. Some processors have the capability to automatically decrease the speed as a compensation for heat related issues. This may be one of the reasons for your question: why is my computer running so slow and how to speed up computer.

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The Heart of Your Computer

The Central Processing Unit (CPU), the heart of your computer, is located on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. The IC chip also contains the memory (the data that you have created or captured and stored) of your computer. Some technicians refer to the memory as the brain, but a brain thinks, reasons, and forms ideas, whereas memory, like a library of books, only gives you back what it has.

Most folks know about the IC chip, the most important (and most expensive) component of their computer. Those who do not know that usually learn it when a chip manufacturer (such as Intel, AMD, Nvidia, or other) reports that they will send a software patch to correct a vulnerability in chips they sold or placed in electronic devices, like your computer. Think of a technology vulnerability like a door left unlocked in your house. Someone unwanted might enter your house. A vulnerability in your IC chip provides an opportunity for someone to get access to your memory data, to steal it, mess it up, or lock it up until you pay them a ransom to get a code to release it.

But, remember that your computer has a heart, the CPU, which processes the patches of vulnerabilities. Find out who sends the patches to your computer and how. Microsoft supports your computer that contains a Microsoft Windows operation system. Apple supports your iPad or other Apple product. You may have a Linux operating system and need to get your patches from Redhat or other Linux supporter. Other types of microprocessors exist as well. Check your purchase data to learn about them. When you find the correct one, contact them and find out when they push the patches electronically to their product users. Probably your operating system support company sends a massive electronic push once per month, a smaller weekly push, and (in an emergency to correct a serious IC chip flaw), as soon as the patch exists.

You may leave your computer on all of the time. If you do, your operating system support company regularly sends the patches to your computer. Check your security history file to see which ones you have (you want to see current dates). Contact the sender if you want to know more about the patch. If you turn your computer off at the end of your day, pick one day each week in which you will leave it on to get the patches. Also, say a prayer for your CPU. As long as it has a heart, you have a computer. #Tag1writer

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Introduction to Cloud Computing

1. Introduction to Cloud Computing

Cloud computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the data centers that provide those services. The data center hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud. Cloud computing is relatively new concept and it has become popular recently. Cloud leverages virtualization technology and in the essence of Cloud computing there is a logical separation between different nodes, each node appears as a different physical machine to the user. Unlike grid computing, it makes several distributed computers connected together to form a big logical computer which can handle large amount of data and computation. In case of Cloud computing the virtualization technology makes it possible to have each node appear as separate physical machine allowing user to load custom software and operating system on each node and configure custom rules for each node.

The idea of Cloud computing is evolved from parallel processing, distributed computing and grid computing. There is a bit similarity between them but they work differently. Although Cloud computing is an emerging field of computer science, the idea has been around for a few years. It’s called Cloud computing because the data and applications exist on a “cloud” of Web servers. To simplify the concept, Cloud computing can be defined as simply the sharing and use of applications and resources of a network environment to get work done without concern about ownership and management of the network’s resources and applications. According to Scale, with Cloud computing, computer resources for getting work done and their data are no longer stored on one’s personal computer, but are hosted elsewhere to be made accessible in any location and at any time.

2. Related Technology Comparison

2.1. Grid computing A form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a ‘super and virtual computer’ is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks

2.2. Utility computing The packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity.

2.3. Autonomic computing

Computer systems capable of self management.

3. General mechanism

Cloud computing using information technology as a services over the network. The concept generally encompasses of Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS) Hardware as a Service (HaaS) and Software as a service (SaaS). It can be the ability to rent a server or servers and run a geophysical modeling application available anywhere. It can be the ability to (S Rupley, 2009) rent a virtual server, load software on it, turn it on and off at will, or clone it to meet a sudden workload demand. It can be storing and securing large amounts of data that is accessible only by authorized applications and users. It can be supported by a cloud provider that sets up a platform with the ability to scale automatically in response to changing workloads. It can be using a storage cloud to hold application, business, and personal data. And it can be the ability to use a handful of Web services to integrate photos, maps, and GPS information to create a front page in customer Web browsers.

In a cloud computing system, there is a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to run applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. In this situation the demand of hardware and software on the user’s side is decreased. Let the cloud take care of it. The only thing that local computers should aware is the interface software that will run the application. Today’s, a Web Browser such as Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer 8 is widely use as an interface software in cloud computing system.

The truth is, internet users already used some form of cloud computing. If they have an email account with a Webbased email service like Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail or Gmail, then they had some experience with cloud computing. Instead of running an email program on a local computer, user will log in to a Web email account remotely. The software and storage for the account does not exist in the local computer it is on the service’s computer cloud.

4. Key characteristic of Cloud Computing

Currently, there is no standard definition or specification for Cloud Computing. It may take some time to define the key characteristics of Cloud Computing based on practices in the field.Based on practices in the areas of service provisioning and solution design, the following two key enabling technologies could play a vital role in this revolutionary phase of cloud computing:

4.1. Virtualization technology

Virtualization technology works to handle on how the image of the operating system, middleware, and application procreated and allocated to a physical machine or part of the server stack away. The virtualization technology can also help reuse licenses of operating systems, middleware, or software applications, once a subscriber releases their service from the Cloud Computing platform.

4.2. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

A service oriented architecture is essentially a collection of services. These services communicate with each other. The communication can involve either simple data passing or it could involve two or more services coordinating some activity. Some means of connecting services to each other is needed. The evolution of a system or software architecture is now moving towards services oriented, unlike several decades ago most of the application is stand alone and purposely for single use. Recently, the gigantic growth of the internet user and internet technology availability the use of software now can be rented. Giant company such as Google, Microsoft, Sun or even Amazon have this capability provide software services instead of selling the software directly to user. The SOA is software or system architecture that addressing componentization, reusability, extensibility, and flexibility. These entire characteristic is a fundamentals need for company that are looking for reducing cost and opt to rent instead of purchase.

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